Examples of Cause and Effect Essays of 5 paragraph length for Omani students

Below is an example of a 5-paragraph  “Effects Essay”.  Your first Cause or Effects Essay Quiz” is very soon thi.e. in June.

An “Effects Essay”

Topic: “The effects of having high absences for Foundation students at SCT”

Thesis Statement: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Underline the topic sentences in each of the next 5 paragraphs.


Many foreign teachers are amazed at the number of absences that Omani students think are acceptable when they arrive here to college.  In most countries around the world, no students are allowed to miss more than two to five percent of their classes in a semester.  Students at SCT are permitted to miss up to  fifteen percent of their classes in a single semester.  There are many bad effects of missing too many classes at SCT. Here are the three most important bad effects of missing too many classes and not practicing enough English.

First, the most important reason that students hurt themselves when they don’t attend class is that they do not spend enough time speaking, writing, listening, reading, and practicing English language and vocabulary. When time-spent-practicing English per-student is too low, students cannot move from one level to the next in the Foundation program easily.  If they are lucky enough to pass to a higher level or even to pass all four levels in the Foundation English, the students have either cheated or depended too much on others to do their work, i.e. students are not passing exams and foundation levels through their own effort. So, the students are not becoming responsible adults, e.g. responsible for their own marks or grades.

Second, because it is often true that students who do not attend classes regularly at the Foundation level either cheat or depend on others to do their work for them, these same students have trouble in all of their Post-Foundations courses, too.   Students have trouble in their post-foundation courses because their English skills and math skills are weak.  Soon they may not pass the other SCT courses nor get good grades.  This means that the recommendations from professors will not be very good.  That will make it harder to find a job.

Third, because of low attendance and other bad study habits, some students actually will either leave SCT during the Foundation or Post-Foundation period.   Others will continue to fail too many exams.  Others simply will miss too many classes. Others give up hope and stop going to college.  Many of these students then have trouble getting the career or jobs that they have dreamt of getting. This is very sad or tragic.

In conclusion, attendance is very important for students at SCT, but too many students do not take attendance nor practice of English and study of English or math seriously.   It is very important for students to have high attendance rates and to spend as much time practicing English (and math) regularly.  I believe that both in the Foundation level and in the Post-Foundation level students must have good attendance and good study habits.


Below is an example of a 5-paragraph  “Cause Essay”.  Your first Cause or Effects Essay Quiz” is on 30th of January.

A “Cause Essay”

Topic: “The causes of poor grades  or marks for some students at SCT”

Thesis Statement: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Underline the topic sentences in each of the next 5 paragraphs.

Some days ago, I met an 80 year-old Omani.  The man had never gone to school but he had learnt many things.  He could write in Arabic and read the Koran.  He had learnt to be a carpenter and a mason.  Later, after he was older, he learnt to drive and then drove trucks and taxis.  I asked him why he thought many of my students at SCT don’t seem to learn or do not want to try and learn English very well.  The older man said that there are many reasons why young Omani’s do not study or like to learn many things as people in his generation had to do.

First of all, the older man said that too many young Omanis get too much given to them from their parents. The old Omani explained that, for example, if a young boy wants a car, the father often gives it to him. Later, in college, this may mean that when the same young man asks for help on his homework, too, that he believes that someone should simply give it to him, i.e. without him really studying or learning to study.

Second, the 80 year-old said that young people often don’t have the patience that many in his generation had learnt. For example, when he was young and he needed money, he learnt step-by-step to work as a carpenter and later as a mason.  First, he watched the others work.  Next, he tried it and asked for help. It took time. The man had to learn to work with simple tools and simple designs before he tried more difficult ones.  As a truck driver, too, he first learnt to drive slow and safely before he later drove many kilometers to Abu Dhabi, to Qatar, and to Kuwait. However, nowadays, students and young drivers are looking to go too fast and take dangerous shortcuts.   In education this often means cheating or paying someone else to study or to help them. Others get a friend in class to do work for them rather than listening to teacher in class and asking questions.

Finally, some young people simply do not know what is important or don’t know what they want. They are disorganized with their lives. Until the student knows why he studies or what he wants when he studies, the student will not be organized.  The student will waste time on this or that instead of taking time to do what he really needs to do. Perhaps, if young people work in groups or have better advice from others,  they will be able to organize their lives and make better decisions.

In conclusion, the 80 year-old Omani from Dahariz believes that young people have basically three problems when learning.  First, sometimes, they are given too much and because of this, they don’t learn to try hard enough on their own. Second, some people are trying to go too fast without learning the patience to do things step-by-step  (or slowly-but-surely). Third, some people need ask for advice and direction from others about how to organize their time, study habits and lives better. I think this is all great advice for Omani students and youth.


Finally, identify and number the supporting ideas in paragraphs 2, 3, and 4.

About eslkevin

I am a peace educator who has taken time to teach and work in countries such as the USA, Germany, Japan, Nicaragua, Mexico, the UAE, Kuwait, Oman over the past 4 decades.
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9 Responses to Examples of Cause and Effect Essays of 5 paragraph length for Omani students

  1. eslkevin says:

    How Omani Students help create their own Educational Materials–with the example of WAR

    is another related article at https://eslkevin.wordpress.com/2013/02/05/how-omani-students-help-create-their-own-educational-materials-with-the-example-of-war/#comment-15157

  2. eslkevin says:


    Metaphor of the woven blanket, that keeps everybody together– Marie Theres LeRoux on teacher expectations & student achievement in Oman graduate schools

    Below is a selection from “Stories About Teaching Overseas: Educators Talk About Adjustment to Oman”(2011) by JonLee Joseph and published in Salalah College of Technology English Language Centre Journal (1:1) 73-86.

    The article focuses on how foreign teaching staff adapt to life and work in Oman, a new society for them. This particularly part of an interview is with Marie Theres LeRoux from South African. While in Oman Marie attended a graduate program with a British university. In her oral interview with JonLee Joseph, Marie shares the following insight on teacher expectations and student achievement.

    “The Leeds University presents a[n] M.A. program for Omani students at Majan University in Muscat. The group of students that I’m with are mostly Omanis, actually maybe fifteen Omanis, and four from other countries. Being a student in this group—at first I came into the group, and I found it was completely unlike any academic setting I have ever seen. The amount of support between the students was Tremendous! It’s like you’re part of this woven blanket, that keeps everybody together. You miss a class—somebody’s got the handouts for you.

    We had an on-line network where we were communicating with each other as well, because people don’t see each other for six months. People were really making an effort to take care of each other, especially from a social and emotional kind of side. Academically, there was very little of substance going on. I found this a little bit disconcerting and disappointing. We could be exchanging a great amount of information that could help us with class studies, but I didn’t see very much of that. What I did see was plenty of, ‘Well how’s the new baby?’ And all of this, which really built this structure of caring between the people, but not much exploitation of the academic side.

    So, the episode that I would think of that was really interesting—we had differenet tutors coming in one by one, and the students would talk about, ‘Well, how was the tutor?’ And ‘How do you find the work?’ And for most of the students there, it’s still their second language, they’re really struggling with the materials, but they need a lot of meditation to actually come to grips with the materials.

    How their tutor would present their material was a very big factor for them. And then there were workshops and there were group assignments. And then there were long boring lectures; I just lap it up. And everybody else complained.

    The third (tutor) was luminary, and he told us that he’d been to Oman to teach twenty-five times. And, I could really see, that he was presenting material in a way that would be digestible to the students here. He knew that when students come to class, they will not have done the readings. So, he didn’t assume that (they would). Every other tutor until that point had assumed—wrongly—that the students would come to class prepared. Then students wouldn’t do the reading and everything would collapse.”


    In one part of her interview with JonLee, Marie shares an insight into how Omani students expect a good community of students to function: For each person involved in the group or class, “[i]t’s like you’re part of this woven blanket, that keeps everybody together.”

    The first thing I think of when I hear the phrase “woven blanket, that keeps everybody together” is that this is a lot like “culture” in its purest sense. One definition of culture is “a particular form or stage of civilization, as that of a certain nation or period: Greek culture.” From a developmental point of view, we can perceive how a culture made up of Omani students behave at this time in history by looking at Marie’s narration.

    Another definition of culture is “the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group: the youth culture; the drug culture.” In reference to this second definition, we observe that “the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group” in Marie’s narration of her graduate school experience in Oman include:

    (1) One does not read the material before the lecture.
    (2) One does not use the on-line component of the class to primarily talk about academia but rather uses it to build an emotional and support network amongst peoples who might be quite isolated from one another.
    (3) One expects the tutor or instructor to bend the course to fit the expectations of the students—not the other way around.
    (4) If the expectations of students, e.g. concerning reading material before a lecture, are not followed in tutor’s design of course, the blame will be expected to lie on the tutor for failing to follow cultural norms and expectations.

    In the context of teacher expectations and student achievement, the imported-academic-program is expected in Oman to quickly reflect the dominant-Omani-student-learning style or culture rather than expecting or having the dominant Omani culture acquire what-students-may-consider to be a foreign (not of local culture) learning style.

    On the one hand, appropriation of some offered subject material takes place and is passed on through the imported academic institution, in this case from an M.A. program from Leeds University. Naturally, the amount of material and ideas obsorbed, acquired or learned is diminished, however, by the preferred dominant culture of learning as demonstrated by the students themselves.

    On the other hand, I also need to note that since the Leeds University M.A. program in question was likely an M.A. course in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages)–, the “woven blanket, that keeps everybody together”, in fact, also keeps the Omani-majority in Marie’s study group clueless as to a world of alternative ways for Omani students in the future to approach the world of learning. In short, culture-dominant behavior and thinking are ruling out student adaptation or acquisition of alternative learning models.

    In short, the “woven blanket, that keeps everybody together” is helpful, indeed, psychologically and socially but has a horrible short and long-term affect on how students really do acquire information about teaching and learning academically. Such participating Omani graduate students are likely to see or try-out alternative ways of doing and learning. They will see the information which they have been served up in class by the tutor or M.A. designers as simply theoretical—rather than practical.

    Moreover, in the case of graduate students in education, their culture of learning fails to benefit them more fully than would a host of alternative approaches to learning. For example, her Omani peers missed out by not asking Marie to lead an online discussion concerning what pained her about the class’ online behavior or lack of seriousness academically. In short, the culture of the “woven blanket, that keeps everybody together” is in some ways a suffocating blanket—at least in terms of academic learning and cross-cultural knowledge sharing. Complainers about the local practices are not often welcome in many cultures. Hopefully, Omani graduate teachers in education can move on from this stage in cultural development soon, e.g.. once they see or listen to better on-line discussions debating academics in a robust manner.

    In conclusion, I would be remiss if I were not to restate and emphasize that Marie, in talking about the “woven blanket, that keeps everybody together” does lift up in a positive manner the Omani student learning model as practiced in her graduate degree program for its very supportive nature—both emotionally supportive and practical-supportive, e.g. in tutoring one’s peers when they had missed a class. This facet of the “woven blanket, that keeps everybody together” is also very important in nurturing any outsider who may wish to join their educational grouping. This is a very important facet of the family-oriented Omani society. Omani’s are great at sharing and welcoming others. Omanis should be encouraged to not give up these brilliant facets of their learning community as their culture evolves over coming decades. Nonetheless, they should be encouraged to have higher academic standards and be more powered to do so by the M.A. course designers in coming academic years.

    If Omani educators do not internalize these two learning skills as students: (1) prepare or read material prior to the exam and (2) expect more of themselves in class and online discussions, how will the country’s future students in primary, secondary, and tertiary levels ever achieve at higher levels?

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  4. eslkevin says:


    Cause and Effect: Attendance as an Issue in Schools Globally

    By Kevin Stoda, an American in Oman

    In many countries of the world, attendance at university and college classes are not as serious a matter as it is in the United State. Many foreign students come to the USA and learn this the hard way—having to retake courses that they should have passed the first time. I have experienced the effects that these educational-social-practice differences have had on me as both a lecturer and as a student.

    For example, I was a student in Germany at university from 1986 through 1990 while at the same time I occasionally taught classes in English to some of my peers as paid employee at the same institution. In Japan and Mexico, too, I was active at different times as both a student and as an instructor. Finally, I should add, in my homeland, the USA at various times over the decades, I have also been active as a student and as a university instructor. In the next part of this essay, I will discuss some of the causes and effects that the different attitudes about regular attendance can have on students and instructors.

    There are several major causes as to why, in general, Americans—including professors and most students–take university classroom attendance so seriously as compared to those in some other lands. First of all, in most American universities and colleges enrollment in a semester course is already fairly fixed by the end of the first week of classes. For this reason, students who enroll late or who decide to abandon a course after the first week face very high fees or financial penalties. In contrast to the USA, in many countries in the world, such as in Mexico or Germany, most public universities are free or relatively free for the students entering them.

    A second reason why Americans take classroom attendance seriously is because it is often anticipated (or assumed) by students and many teaching staff that the coursework or projects are as important for success in the course as are any exams. This is because in the typical American elementary and secondary school system students rarely have experienced more than a handful of high-stakes exams in their lives as compared to those in other lands who almost exclusively receive their semester marks based upon the marks that they get on one or two exams taken each year.

    Third, American public schools receive both state and federal funding based upon student attendance. This leads administrators to give great attention to attendance as part of the process that eventually brings students to college and universities in a daily interaction.

    The effect of this more hyper focus on attendance for American students at the university level include the fact that issues of time-on-task practicing and time-spent-wrestling with any course material in a classroom setting are often taken more seriously at tertiary institutes in the USA than in other corners of the world. German students studying at American universities, in contrast, often feel that the American system treats them like they are still high school students—leaving them feeling demeaned. At the same time, I—as an American student studying in Germany (following my having already received a B.A. in a U.S. college)—was equally frustrated by the lack of attendance by my peers at German universities. This lack of attendance led me to demean attendance myself and I subsequently dropped out of several courses because attendance was obviously not taken as serious (by either my peers or by many instructors).

    Similarly, when I lived, worked, and studied in Japan, many Japanese students—who had worked hard in high schools across that county by taking many high stakes tests to gain entrance at some high quality institutions—were less than serious in attending class for much of their first two years they attended university or college. (NOTE: The Japanese, in contrast to the German students, would often, however, become fairly regular at attending classes once-again by their junior and senior years. This had partially to do with the fact that the easier courses and exams had been put behind them by then and once again high-stakes exams and high stakes-projects took place normally only in the second half of their studies.)

    In the Middle East, where I have taught most of the recent past decade and a half, I once again find that student attendance in courses at the remedial-, freshman-, and sophomore levels is not taken very seriously historically. On the surface, it appears that here the idea is that if one is really concerned or really needs help, one should pay for a tutor. This has led to very low standards of performance on exams and projects for far too many students.

    In conclusion, increasingly as teachers and students migrate around the planet, attendance is an issue these days for many in various parts of the world. This is often the case regardless as to whether attendance was-or-is important in someone’s homeland. In other words, the issue of student attendance—and how lecturers and students see attendance’s role in their education– is an important issue because our world is one of global migrations. Instructors are moving from one country to another to teach, and likewise some students go to other countries to learn while others back in their homelands experience instructors from many different countries by the time they graduate from college or university.[1]

    At times, migrants, academics, and students simply conform to one another’s expectations, but more often than not either the instructor, the administrators, or students will have to be subservient to the historically dominant culture on campus. This is a relatively straightforward procedure in some ways, i.e. one often assumes that if one is in Rome, one should act as the Romans. As a migratory lecturer, one might simply need be prepared to go-with-the-flow and observe how others behave. This works fine if no-change in an educational system is expected nor desired. However, in many cases around the globe, educational reforms are being sought, i.e. one should not always assume that doing-as-the-Romans-do will continue to get you and your educational institution from A to B. In the case of attendance, my current institution has come to see that student attendance is more desirable for student achievement.

    As a migrant instructor, I am ready to support this reform, especially as an American I am familiar with the benefits of high attendance and high participation in a lively and motivating course. On the other hand, many of my colleagues from neighboring Arab lands or certain parts of Europe, Africa or Australia may not appreciate nor full grasp the importance of attendance.[2] Or, they may be more interested in going with the flow of local practices, i.e. rather than seeing themselves as a developmental worker involved in positive organizational change.


    [1] Recently, I was in a college employee meeting room with 17 staffers teaching the exact same course curriculum. The birth countries represented in that group of seventeen instructors included: Oman, the USA, Canada, Iran, Sudan, Jordan, India, Bangladesh, the Philippines, South Africa, Scotland and England.

    [2] In test driven East Asian and South Asian societies hiring a tutor has been the main choice of most families for centuries, i.e. rather than improving how course is delivered in classroom and how students are required to participate in a classroom. Classroom expectations there have historically been of the lecture hall variety historically.

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  6. eslkevin says:

    See this for an adapted Reading test on these topics. https://eslkevin.wordpress.com/2016/11/27/65093/

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