teachers, you, others, and moral injury


Many people confront potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIEs) in the course of their work which can violate deeply held moral values or beliefs, putting them at risk for psychological difficulties (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, etc.).

The self-importance of moral identity.By Aquino, Karl,Reed II, AmericusJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 83(6), Dec 2002, 1423-1440


Recent theorizing in moral psychology extends rationalist models by calling attention to social and cultural influences (J. Haidt, 2001). Six studies using adolescents, university students, and adults measured the associations among the self-importance of moral identity, moral cognitions, and behavior. The psychometric properties of the measure were assessed through an examination of the underlying factor structure (Study 1) and convergent, nomological, and discriminant validity analyses (Studies 2 and 3). The predictive validity of the instrument was assessed by examinations of the relationships among the self-importance of moral identity, various psychological outcomes, and behavior (Studies 4, 5, and 6). The results are discussed in terms of models of moral behavior, social identity measurement, and the need to consider moral self-conceptions in explaining moral conduct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Moral injury and the ethics of educational injustice

M Levinson – Harvard Educational Review, 2015 – hepgjournals.org… How can teachers and administrators ensure that other children can learn in the safe and
academically … night, after spending three unanticipated hours tending to his sick toddler, should
teacher concentrate on … MoralInjury and the Ethics of Educational Injustice meira levinson …Cited by 34Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF] academia.edu

Moral injury and moral repair in war veterans: A preliminary model and intervention strategy

BT LitzN Stein, E Delaney, L Lebowitz… – Clinical psychology …, 2009 – Elsevier… The aversive learning experiences from powerful others (parents, teachers, leaders) leads to
self-censure and moral comportment, as well as the expectation that others should conform to
moral standards, and if … Consequently, shame may be a more integral part of moralinjury …Cited by 918Related articlesAll 11 versions[PDF] academia.edu

Moral injury: A mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members

WP Nash, BT Litz – Clinical child and family psychology review, 2013 – Springer… be committed by members of one’s moral covenant, including family members, teachers,
community leaders … supportive, and forgiving moral authority figure (eg, parent, coach, leader,
teacher, etc … Depending on the nature of the moralinjury and the apportionment of blame for the …Cited by 133Related articlesAll 16 versions

Children’s social interactions in the context of moral and conventional transgressions

LP Nucci, MS Nucci – Child development, 1982 – JSTOR… related changes in the response tenden- cies of children and teachers within the gen- eral
tendency of teachers to respond … an increase in child response to conventional violations
(F[2,27] = 4.39, p < .02), and a decrease in teacher response to moral transgressions (F …Cited by 214Related articlesAll 3 versions

Moral injury among Child Protection Professionals: Implications for the ethical treatment and retention of workers

W HaightEP Sugrue, M Calhoun – Children and Youth Services Review, 2017 – Elsevier… Keefe-Perry (2016) and Levinson (2015) suggest that public school teachers experience
moralinjury within the morally complex and high-stakes settings of their work where
they often are required to take ethically challenging actions …Cited by 13Related articlesAll 4 versions

A scoping study of moral injury: Identifying directions for social work research

W HaightE Sugrue, M Calhoun, J Black – Children and youth services …, 2016 – Elsevier… title, journal name, date of publication, search engine, aim/purpose, research design, research
question(s), population type (eg military, non-military), role of morally injured (eg perpetrator,
bystander, victim), key empirical findings including the experiences of moralinjury by role …Cited by 14Related articlesAll 8 versions[PDF] researchgate.net

Teachers‘ views of forgiveness for the resolution of conflicts between students in school

J Rique, MT Lins-Dyer – Journal of moral education, 2003 – Taylor & Francis… the assertion that forgiveness, as well as justice, is a concept in the moral domain, but … a person
(an offender) is not reducible to a third person’s (a judge, a teacher) view of … Our hypothesis that
teachers would provide us sponta- neously with “scenarios of what works” to reduce …Cited by 13Related articlesAll 6 versions[PDF] upenn.edu

School discipline in moral disarray

JF Goodman – Journal of Moral Education, 2006 – Taylor & Francis… Precautions can be taken against these risks, however, without removing disciplinary decisions
from teachers … lines to be drawn between moral, non-moral and derivatively moral wrongs, between
children’s agency and dependency, between teacher-based and …Cited by 68Related articlesAll 8 versions

Pedagogies of censorship, injury, and masochism: Teacher responses to homophobic speech in physical education

H Sykes – Journal of Curriculum Studies, 2004 – Taylor & Francis… This intervention typically happens at the level of the individual teacher within the
informal and hidden curriculum. Such a pedagogy of injury places teachers‘ personal
experience at the centre of their intervention into homophobia …Cited by 59Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF] researchgate.net

The role of parents in moral development: A social domain analysis

JG Smetana – Journal of moral education, 1999 – Taylor & Francis… Con- versely, they evaluated statements indicating that the act was creating disorder in response
to moral transgressions (domain-inappropriate) or conventional transgres- sions … Children rated
domain-appropriate teacher responses (and the teachers themselves) more …Cited by 218Related articlesAll 10 versions

Religious considerations and self-forgiveness in treating complex trauma and moral injury in present and former soldiers

EL Worthington Jr, D Langberg – Journal of Psychology and …, 2012 – journals.sagepub.com… their du- ties effectively, especially if other lives are lost or people are injured … might blame
command structure, trainers for inade- quate preparation, or even former teachers or parents …
(2009) concep- tualized the emotional consequences of perpetrating a moralinjury on others …Cited by 96Related articlesAll 4 versions

Moral thinking, sports rules and education

L Hsu – Sport, education and society, 2004 – Taylor & Francis… Thus, teachers and coaches must help students and athletes develop their moral reasoning skills.
The physical education class provides ample opportunities for the teacher to stop a play and
point out how a player is not receiving the respect that he or she deserves and …Cited by 30Related articlesAll 5 versions

Preschool children’s social interactions involving moral and prudential transgressions: An observational study

MS Tisak, LP Nucci, AM Jankowski – Early Education and …, 1996 – Taylor & Francis… Nucci, LP (1982). Conceptual development in the moral and conventional domains: Impli- cations
for value education … Evaluating teachers as social agents: students’ ratings of domain appro- priate
and domain inappropriate teacher responses to transgressions …Cited by 44Related articlesAll 3 versions[PDF] researchgate.net

Toddlers’ social interactions regarding moral and conventional transgressions

JG Smetana – Child Development, 1984 – JSTOR… Teachers but not preschool chil- dren responded to conventional violations with statements
focused … With the exception of four categories (focus on teacher’s feelings-72%; disorder … analyses
were performed: (a) comparisons of the relative frequencies of moral and conventional …Cited by 150Related articlesAll 6 versions[PDF] semanticscholar.org

Children’s moral motivation, sympathy, and prosocial behavior

T Malti, M Gummerum, M Keller… – Child …, 2009 – Wiley Online Library… Moral motivation, harm T1, 1.19, 0.67, 1.10, 0.68. a Mother report. b Teacher report. c Child report.
Mothers rated girls as more prosocial than boys at T1, t(1,190) = 5.55, p < .001, Cohen’s d = .29,
and at T2, t(1,011) = 6.06, p < .001, Cohen’s d = .38. Likewise, kindergarten teachers …Cited by 265Related articlesAll 16 versions[PDF] researchgate.net

Spiritual features of war-related moral injury: A primer for clinicians.

JH Wortmann, E Eisen, C Hundert… – Spirituality in Clinical …, 2017 – psycnet.apa.org… that violate deeply held moral beliefs and expectations may lead to moralinjury and associated …
Helping morally injured war veterans who are grappling with spiritual or religious issues is … when
to seek consultation from and collaborate with spiritual/religious teachers (Vieten et …Cited by 15Related articlesAll 5 versions

Moral injury, spiritual care and the role of chaplains: An exploratory scoping review of literature and resources

LB Carey, TJ Hodgson, L Krikheli, RY Soh… – Journal of religion and …, 2016 – Springer… service might impose an inordinate number of physical and mental demands and be the cause
of intense stress, moralinjury arises from … So, in reflecting upon a morally challenging experience,
a morally injured person realises they were not the individual they had previously …Cited by 24Related articlesAll 10 versions[PDF] academia.edu

[PDF] Moral injury and relational harm: Analyzing rape in Darfur

SC Miller – Journal of Social Philosophy, 2009 – academia.edu… Mazkhabad, during which government forces surrounded and guarded the school as the
Janjaweed brutally raped the schoolgirls and their teachers. Bashir’s conversation with Sumiah,
teacher from the school, in the hours after the attack, underscores the moralinjury of rape …Cited by 22Related articlesAll 6 versions[PDF] researchgate.net

Maltreated and nonmaltreated preschoolers’ conceptions of hypothetical and actual moral transgressions.

JG SmetanaSL TothD Cicchetti, J Bruce… – Developmental …, 1999 – psycnet.apa.org… hide footnote Because some moral transgressions were directed toward teachers, the
interviewers also recorded whether the victim was a teacher or a peer and then administered
the actual events interview, which took less than 5 min to complete …Cited by 140Related articlesAll 10 versions

Personal injury and property damage in the moral judgments of children

D Elkind, RF Dabek – Child Development, 1977 – JSTOR… oriented work on moral development, the issue of personal injury in children’s moral judgments
has … 6-year-old subjects and found that children of that age regarded personal injury as more … thank
Lawrence Root, the principal of the Council Rock School, and the teachers of that …Cited by 59Related articlesAll 4 versions

Social–cognitive domain theory: Consistencies and variations in children’s moral and social judgments

M KillenJG Smetana, J Smetana – Handbook of moral …, 2006 – taylorfrancis.com… they view children as having autonomy over personal issues, whereas teachers are seen … protocol
to examine conflict resolution, discourse, and family, peer, and teacher–child interactions … of the
responses were consistent with the notion that children’s moral understanding can …Cited by 899Related articlesAll 6 versions

How sustained conflict makes moral education impossible: some observations from Palestine

SJ Affouneh – Journal of Moral Education, 2007 – Taylor & Francis… Another interviewee highlighted the difficulty of developing any form of moral education in such …
Jamila (teacher/parent): It is difficult if not impossible to teach children about morals and … Parents,
teachers and other members of the community thus face a huge dilemma in deciding …Cited by 20Related articlesAll 5 versions

Sport and moral education

PJ Arnold – Journal of moral education, 1994 – Taylor & Francis… is a “moral educator” but the efficacy of this is occasionally challenged on the grounds that not
all teachers are trained or … Whatever the explanation it becomes, in the first instance at least, the
responsibility of the teacher to provide some individual … Sport and Moral Education 83 …Cited by 159Related articlesAll 5 versions

Children’s social interactions and social concepts: Analyses of morality and convention in the Virgin Islands

LP Nucci, E Turiel… – Journal of Cross …, 1983 – journals.sagepub.com… TYPES OF RESPONSES TO TRANSGRESSIONS The responses of children and teachers to
transgressions … In all eight schools the children responded more frequently to moral than to …
PSYCHOLOGY TABLE 3 Percentages of Frequencles of Child and Teacher Responses to …Cited by 164Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF] uu.nl

Moral reasoning in genetics education: Educational research

P van Der ZandeM Brekelmans… – Journal of Biological …, 2009 – Taylor & Francis… Reasoning in the classroom Although the teachers all recognised two different types of reasoning …
Teacher 5: “Your feelings tell you very clearly whether you are doing wrong or … ” However, in the
conceptual framework we use, this moral guideline for appropriate behaviour based …Cited by 14Related articlesAll 10 versions

Committed to caring: Transformation in adolescent moral identity

K Reimer – Applied Developmental Science, 2003 – Taylor & Francis… So- cial influences may be found in a variety of relation- ships, effectively including parents, peers,
mentors, teachers, and coaches in … Be a teacher … The computational language approach to moral
de- velopment study may prove useful to further investi- gate the shape of caring …Cited by 69Related articlesAll 2 versions

Moral reasoning, classroom behavior, and sociometric status among elementary school children.

GG Bear, GS Rys – Developmental Psychology, 1994 – psycnet.apa.org… validity (discrimination between adjusted and maladjusted groups and expected correlations
with teacher ratings of … Teachers, who were paid $25 each for their involvement in the study,
completed the T … who chose to stop and help an injured child gave various moral reasons for …Cited by 72Related articlesAll 6 versions[PDF] diva-portal.org

Hushing as a moral dilemma in the classroom

R Thornberg – Journal of Moral Education, 2006 – Taylor & Francis… In a Swedish study, teachers were asked to write down behaviours that they found … Observation
data from Swedish classrooms indicate that teacher-dominated whole-class activities and
individual … social climate in the classroom, and therefore also to the issue of moral education …Cited by 49Related articlesAll 11 versions

Risky bodies: health surveillance and teachers‘ embodiment of health

L WebbM Quennerstedt – International journal of qualitative …, 2010 – Taylor & Francis… In these ways, physical education teachers are both the embodiment of bio-citizens and part
of … The physical education teacher’s concern for the health of their students (and the surveillance
of the … of coaches, in the case of this research) therefore takes on a moral imperative in …Cited by 57Related articlesAll 4 versions[PDF] kcl.ac.uk

Occupational moral injury and mental health: Systematic review and meta-analysis

V WilliamsonSAM Stevelink… – The British Journal of …, 2018 – cambridge.org… MoralInjury Questionnaire Teacher Version, non-validated, 12-item scale of potential moralinjury
event exposure to assess teacher’s exposure to … teachers … a loss of meaning,58 all of which have
been reported in qualitative studies following military-related moralinjury.6 Similar …Cited by 3Related articlesAll 9 versions

About eslkevin

I am a peace educator who has taken time to teach and work in countries such as the USA, Germany, Japan, Nicaragua, Mexico, the UAE, Kuwait, Oman over the past 4 decades.
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